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HL-1M Tokamak(1994-2001)


Nuclear Fusion Reactor & Materials Research

Other experiment devices

HL-1M tokamak (R=1.02m,a=0.26m) is a circular cross-section tokamak modified from HL-1 by removing the conductive shell  and replacing the vacuum chamber to increase the plasma minor radius and improve the accessibility. Four different systems of auxiliary heating and current drive including an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of 0.5 MW, a lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) of 1MW, a neutral beam injection (NBI) of 1MW, and  

an ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) of 0.8 MW were used to heat HL-1M plasma. In 1994, the engineering test was finished and experiments had been conducted till 2001.

The goal of the HL-1M program was to carry the high power auxiliary heating and current drive experiments and also to explore new fuelling techniques. The HL-1M plasma performance had been improved significantly with wall conditioning, auxiliary heating and current drive. Real-time feedback control, data acquisition, power supply, and various diagnostic techniques were developed to improve the plasma control and to obtain better physical understanding. The maximum plasma current and electron density were 320kA and 8.01019m-3 at toroidal field of 3 Tesla, with the longest discharge duration of 4 seconds. Total input power, including ohmic, NBI, LHW, ECRH and ICRH, exceeded 2 MW.

In HL-1M, great progress had been made in many aspects including confinement improvement, plasma auxiliary heating and fuelling, and wall conditioning. The H-mode triggered by a biased electrode with wall boronization was obtained. Strong fishbone instability was observed during off-axis electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH). This was the first observation of fishbone instability purely driven by energetic electron produced by ECRH. A new fuelling technique, the molecular beam injection (MBI), was first proposed and demonstrated in HL-1M. The effectiveness of MBI proves it as a promising fuelling tool for steady-state plasma, and allows it to be applied on many other magnetic devices worldwide.
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